a moment Sát na 刹那 kṣaṇa

Absolute truth Aspect de la pure ainsité Đệ nhất nghĩa đế 第一義諦 paramārtha-satya The supreme truth, or reality in contrast with the seeming; also called Veritable truth, sage-truth, surpassing truth, nirvāṇa, bhūtatathatā, madhya, śūnyatā, etc.

action karma Nghiệp 業 Karman "action, work, deed"; "moral duty"; "product, result, effect." M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras.

activities of the mind actes mentaux Tâm hành 心行 citta-carya The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.

affliction
Hoặc 惑 Affliction Kết sử 結使 The bondage and instigators of the passions.

Afflictive hindrances Désirs terrestres Phiền não chướng 煩惱障 Kleśāvaraṇa The barrier of temptation, passion, or defilement, which obstructs the attainment of the nirvāṇa-mind.

Agama
Agama A hàm 阿含 Āgama Āgama means the place where concentrate all words of educations of Buddha and the doctrine during 49 years.

Agama period Période Agama A hàm thời 阿含時 According to Tien Tai School, the Buddha's Sutras are divided into Five Periods

1. the Avatamsaka Period,

2. the Agama Period,

3. the Vaipulya Period,

4. the Prajna Period, and

5. the Dharma Flower-Nirvana Periods.

The period of speaking the Agama Sutras, 12 years during travelling in 16 countries, was for the teaching of the Small Vehicle, and for those with the lowest situation.


Agitation Agitation Trạo cử 掉舉 auddhatya Indicate a continuously agitated state which became an obstacle of meditative course.


Ajatashatru Ajatashatru A xà thế 阿闍世 Ajatashatru Name of the king of Magadha (the ancient kingdom of India). At the time of Buddha, the prince Ajatashatru listened to his bad friend Devadatta, a cousin and an adversary of Buddha, to put his father-king in jail and to eliminate Buddha. Later, with his remorse, he came to ask for shelter to Buddha and become a very efficient protector of Buddhism.


Ajita Ajita A dật đa 阿逸多 Ajita


all-inclusive wisdom; universal wisdom Chủng trí 種智 sarvathā-jñāna perfect buddha-wisdom that fully knows every single thing in existence


All-inclusive wisdom; universal wisdom Omniscience Nhất thiết chủng trí 一切種智 Sarvathā-jñāna Is an exclusive wisdom of a perfect Buddha, the wisdom which knows the reality such which.


Amitabha Budha Bouddha Amitabha Phật A Di Đà 阿彌陀佛 Amitābha Budha


Amitabha mantra Mantra d'Amitabha A di đà chú 阿彌陀咒 Amitābha mantra A sacred expression of Amitabha Buddhawhich protects the mind of the person who recites and allows him to attain the Pure Lane after death.


Ananda Ananda A nan (đà) 阿難 Ānanda Was the cousin, one of the main disciple of Buddha, and his personal assistant during twenty-five years. A this function, he was the one who gathered most words of Gautama, and was requested for his death to recite Sutta Pikata so that memory does not get lost.


Anathapindika Bienfaiteur des nécessiteux Cấp cô độc 給孤獨 Anàthapindika


anger colère Sân khuể 瞋恚 pratigha one of the six fundamental kleśas, anger, ire, wrath, resentment, one of the three poisons; also called 瞋恚.


Antidote Antidote Đối trị 對治 Pratipakṣa Antidote anti-trouble.


Arhat, Arahan Arhat A la hán 阿羅漢 Arahan According to Theravada, it is the fourth and highest noble being, who, has eliminated completely all activities and stains of passions. It's also one of ten synonymes of Buddha, a noble person who merits to accept offertories; eliminating vainglory, agitation and ignorance; liberating the cycle of reincarnation; having nothing to learn anymore


Ascetic Ascétisme Khổ hạnh 苦行 Duṣkara-caryā Asceticism is a volunteer discipline of the body and mind trying to strive towards a perfection.


aspiration for enlightenment aspiration à l'Eveil Bồ đề tâm 菩提心 bodhi-citta


Attachment (or desire) and views Ái kiến 愛見


Attachment, Desire Attachement, Désir Ái dục 愛欲 Tṛṣṇā, toṣayati, priya Craving or excessive or inappropriate desire


Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Avaloskiteshvara Bồ Tát Quán Thế Âm 觀世音菩薩 Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva


Be mindful of the meritorious virtues of the Buddha Méditer sur un bouddha Niệm phật 念佛 Buddhānusmṛti To repeat the name of a Buddha, audibly or inaudibly.


Become enlightened Illumination Giác ngộ 覺悟 To awake, become enlightened, comprehend spiritual reality.


bestower of fearlessness Octroi-Courage, Donateur de Sécurité Thí vô uý giả 施無畏者 abhaya-dāna


Blue lotus Lotus bleu Ưu bát la 優鉢羅 Utpala


Bodhi tree Arbre de la Bodhi Bồ đề thụ 菩提樹 bodhi druma that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment, and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there.


Bodhidharma Boddhi Dharma Bồ Đề Đạt Ma 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma


Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Bồ tát 菩薩 Bodhisattva


brahma heaven Brahma Phạm thiên 梵天 BrahmāBrahma-deva


Brahman Brahmane Bà la môn 婆羅門 Brāhmaṇa Brahman is part of the upper rank in India.They are the most important and respectable men. They are the priests, teachers and men of law. More in general, a Brahman is a literary man having important knowledge.


breath counting meditation samadhi du compter-du-souffle Số tức quán 數息觀 ānāpāna-smṛti To count the breathing in order to calm mind and body for meditation


Buddha Bouddha Phật Buddha Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is to perceive, aware, awake; and gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.


Buddha's wisdom Phật trí 佛智 Buddha-jñāna Buddha-wisdom, i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awareness or intelligence; sarvajñatā, omniscience.


Buddha-nature Bouddha nature Phật tính 佛性 Buddha-dhātu The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two forms: noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivated in order to produce its ripe fruit.


Buddhist monk Moine bouddhiste Tỉ khâu, Tì kheo 比丘 Bhikkhu, Bhikṣu a religious mendicant, an almsman, one who has left home, been fully ordained, and depends on alms for a living. Some are styled 乞士 mendicant scholars, all are 釋種 Śākya-seed, offspring of Buddha. The Chinese characters are clearly used as a phonetic equivalent, but many attempts have been made to give meanings to the two words, e. g. as and as 煩惱, hence one who destroys the passions and delusions, also 悕能 able to overawe Māra and his minions; also 除饉 to get rid of dearth, moral and spiritual. Two kinds 内乞 and 外乞; both indicate self-control, the first by internal mental or spiritual methods, the second by externals such as strict diet. 苾芻 is a fragrant plant, emblem of the monastic life.


Calm, silent place Lieu calme A lan nhã 阿蘭若 Àranya


cause and effect causalité Nhân quả 因果 hetu-phala Cause and effect; every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause.


cause and effect causalité Nhân quả ứng báo 因果應報 hetu-phala Cause and effect in the moral realm have their corresponding relations, the denial of which destroys all moral responsibility.


characteristics of phenomena Pháp tướng 法相 The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence, both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經, the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic one". Anesaki.


compassion Từ Bi 慈悲 maitrya


Concentration of cessation Diệt tận định 滅盡定 Nirodhasamāpatti


contaminated Hữu lậu 有漏 Sāsrava


contaminated Dục lậu 欲漏 kāmāsrava


Content with few desires désirer peu, se rejouir d'un rien Thiểu dục tri túc 少欲知足 alpeccha saṃtuṣṭa Content with few desires


correct effort Chánh tinh tiến 正精進 samyak-prahāṇāni


correct mindfulness Chánh niệm 正念 samyak-smṛti Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.


correct speech Chánh ngữ 正語 samyag-vāc


correct thought Chánh tư duy 正思惟 samyak-saṃkalpa


Crimes which requires expiation Fautes qui exigent l'expiation Ba dật đề 波逸提 Pāyattika The monks and the buddhist nones have to respect precepts. Those who make errors, have to repair them by expressing their regret.


deed as cause Nghiệp nhân 業因 karma-hetu The deed as cause; the cause of good or bad karma.


delusion regarding the self Ngã si 我癡 ātmamoha Ego-infatuation, confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.


dependent origination, conditioned genesis, dependent co-arising coproduction conditionnée, interdépendance des phénomènes Duyên khởi 縁起 pratītya-samutpāda Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature


Dharma Dharma Pháp Dharma Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.


discursive thought and investigation signifie pensée conceptuelle Tầm tứ 尋伺 vitarka-vicāra two conditions in dhyāna discovery and analysis of principles; vitarka 毘擔迦 a dharma which tends to increase, and vicāra 毘遮羅one which tends to diminish, definiteness and clearness in the stream of consciousness; cf. 中間定.


disposition Tuỳ miên 隨眠 Anuśaya Yielding to sleep, sleepiness, drowsiness,

comatose, one of the kleśa, or temptations; also used by the Sarvāstivādins as an equivalent for kleśa, the passions and delusions; by the 唯識 school as the seed of kleśa; there are categories of 6, 7, 10, 12, and 98 kinds of 隨眠.


distinct karmic reward Biệt báo 別報 Distinct karmic reward; also written 滿業. Activity--referring to relatively quickly actualized karma which generates more detailed difference between beings, such as the distinction in being born as rich or poor, beautiful or ugly, etc. This is as contrasted with more generalized karmic results, such as the species in which one is born, etc., called 總報. Also similar in meaning to 衣報.


distinct states; special objects Biệt cảnh 別境 vibhāvanā The ideas, or mental states which arise according to the various objects or conditions toward which the mind is directed. A special mental function that does not necessarily arise through all minds but rather accords to the 'mind-king' only in special situations--a mental function that judges special objects. The complement of the 'pervasively functioning' (bianxing 遍行) elements. According to the Faxiang 法相 sect, this group of elements falls under the general category of 'mental function' (心所) elements. 別境 includes five elements, which are desire (), verification (勝解), recollection (), meditation () and wisdom ().


Distinctive characteristics Caractéristique particulière Biệt tướng 別相 bheda


Donate Don / Donateur - Dana Đàn na 檀那 Dāna to give, donate, bestow, charity, alms.


donation Le don Bố thí 布施 Dāna the sixth pāramitā, almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation, as neglect or refusal will produce the opposite consequences. The 二種布施 two kinds of dāna are the pure, or unsullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter; and the sullied almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of dāna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are pens to write the sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five kinds are giving to those who have come from a distance, those who are going to a distance, the sick, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds are giving to visitors, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, endowments for the sustenance of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season. The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of evil), return for kindness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 倶舍論 18.


egocentrism Ngã chấp 我執 Ātma-grāha holding to the concept of the ego


enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising éveillé pour soi Duyên giác 緣覺 Pratyekabuddha pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period.


esoteric Buddhism Mật giáo 密教


Evil behavior Conduite méchante Ác hành 惡行


evil destinies Ác thú 惡趣 Durgati


evil destiny Ác đạo 惡道


experience Nghiệp cảm 業感 The influence of karma; caused by karma.


Fearlessness Absence de crainte Vô úy 無畏 Vaiśāradya, Abhaya Absence of fright : when teaching the dharma, the Buddha and bodhisattva speak with trust, safety, without fear, firm and peace.


First meditation Premier niveau d'expérience méditative Sơ thiền 初禪 Prathama-dhyāna


first meditation heaven Sơ thiền thiên 初禪天 prathama-dhyāna


five afflictions of advanced practitioners cinq points de vue erronés Ngũ lợi sử 五利使 pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five dull, or stupid, and five sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見,

邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.


five afflictions that affect beginning practitioners cinq passions illusoires Ngũ độn sử 五鈍使 pañca-kleśa The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: desire, anger or resentment, stupidity or foolishness, arrogance, doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.


Five aggregates Cinq agrégats Ngũ uẩn 五蘊 Pañca Skandha The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.


Five coverings cinq voiles Ngũ cái 五蓋 pañca āvaraṇāni The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt.


five defilements cinq impuretés ou cinq troubles Ngũ trược 五濁 pañca kaṣāyāḥ The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the itself and the fourth and fifth its results.


five desires cinq désirs Ngũ dục 五欲 pañca kāmāḥ The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep.


five faculties Ngũ căn 五根 Pañcendriyāṇi


five heinous crimes cinq forfaits Ngũ nghịch 五逆 pañcānantarya The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby.


five kinds of authorities of the doctrine cinq sortes de maîtres du dharma Ngũ chủng pháp sư 五種法師


five kinds of remorse Ngũ hối 五悔


five meditations and four bases of mindfulness cinq méditations Ngũ đình tâm quán 五停心觀 the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.


five powers Cinq forces Ngũ lực 五力 pañca balāni the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.


Five precepts Cinq préceptes Ngũ giới 五戒 Pañca śīlāni the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.


five vehicles cinq véhicules Ngũ thừa 五乗 pañca yāna The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with the 'void'.


five wrong views Ngũ kiến 五見 pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.


forget thoughts, mistaken thought or conceptualization Illusion Vọng tưởng 妄想 vikalpa


Four bases of supernatural power Tứ thần túc 四神足 catvāra ṛddhi-pādāḥ


Four correct endeavors Tứ chính cần 四正勤 catvāri prahāṇāni


four great vows of bodhisattvahood quatre voeux du bodhisattva Tứ hoằng thệ nguyện 四弘誓願 quatre voeux du bodhisattva (shi guzeigan, shigu-seigan, 四弘誓願). Quatre grands voeux prononcés par un bodhisattva quand il prend la décision de s'engager dans la pratique bouddhique : 1) faire passer l’infinité des êtres (sur la rive du nirvana) ; 2) trancher les innombrables passions ; 3) connaître l’insondable des enseignements du Bouddha ; 4) attester de la prééminence de la voie bouddhique.


four immeasurable minds Quatre incommensurables Tứ Vô Lượng Tâm (Từ Bi Hỷ Xả) 四無量心 catvāry apramāṇāni the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also styled 四等 the four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics; i. e. four of the twelve dhyānas: 慈無量心 boundless kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference, upekṣā, i. e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢; 虛 空 藏; 觀自在; or 盧 空 庫.


four kinds of birth quatre formes de naissance Tứ sinh 四生 catasro-yonayaḥ Catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) or jarāyuja, viviparous, as with mammalia; (2) 卵生 aṇḍaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) 濕生 or 寒熱和合生 saṃsvedaja, moisture, or water-born, as with worms and fishes; (4) 化生 aupapāduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis, or with devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.


Four lands Terres quatre Tứ độ 四土 Buddha-kṣetra The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake.


four meditation heavens Tứ thiền thiên 四禪天 Caturdhyānabhūmi


Four methods of winning (people) over Tứ nhiếp pháp 四攝法 Catvāri saṃgraha-vastūni


four wisdoms Tứ trí 四智 catvāri jñānāni


Fourth meditation Quatrième niveau d'expérience méditative Tứ thiền 四禪 Catvāri dhyāna


fragmentary samsāra Phân đoạn sinh tử 分段生死 limited birth-and-death


Gift of fearlessness Don de courage Vô úy thí 無畏施 Abhayadãna


Go; act; do Hành Saṃskāra Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, going, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for saṁskāra, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. .


good and virtuous friend ami de bien Thiện tri thức 善知識 Kalyāṇa-mitra


good and virtuous friend ami néfaste ou ami du mal Ác tri thức 悪知識 pāpa-mitra


grave offenses Ba la di 波羅夷 Pārājika


Great Assembly Grande Assemblée Đại chúng 大眾 Mahāsaṃgha


Great compassion Grande compassion Đại bi 大悲 mahākaruṇā


Great Compassion Mantra Mantra de la Grande Compassion Chú Đại Bi - Đại Bi Tâm Đà La Ni 大悲咒 Maha Karunika citta Dharani


great enlightenment Grand Eveil Đại giác 大覺 The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and

the enlightening power of a Buddha.


Great kindness Amour universel Đại từ 大慈 mahā-maitrī It is love, universal love, to hope and to share joy to all beings.


Great Vehicle Grand Véhicule Đại thừa 大乘 Mahāyāna


heart, mind, spirit, motive, sense, mentality, idea Tâm citta hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions, of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the sutras.


hell enfer Địa ngục 地獄 naraka


Hidden essence of boudha Nature cachée de bouddha Ẩn một Như lai tạng 隱沒如來藏 Every being has an essence of Buddha but it is hidden by the factors of disturbances.


Hindrance Nghiệp chướng 業障 Karmāvaraṇa The screen, or hindrance, of past karma, hindering the attainment of bodhi.


Hungry ghost esprits affamés Ngạ quỷ 餓鬼 preta hungry spirits, one of the three lower destinies. They are of varied classes, numbering nine or thirty-six, and are in differing degrees and kinds of suffering, some wealthy and of light torment, others possessing nothing and in perpetual torment; some are jailers and executioners of Yama in the hells, others wander to and fro amongst men, especially at night. Their city or region is called 餓鬼城; 餓鬼界. Their destination or path is the 餓鬼趣 or 餓鬼道.


identity arrogance Ngã mạn 我慢 Asmimāna Iidentity; self-pride, pride; conceit. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication, pride.


identity arrogance Mạn Asmimāna


ignorance obscurité fondamentale Vô minh 無明 Avidyā Commonly tr. 'ignorance', means an unenlightened condition, non-perception, before the stirrings of intelligence, belief that the phenomenal is real, etc.


Immaculate conscience Conscience immaculée A ma la thức 阿摩羅識 Amala-vijñāna Pure conscience, is also the ninth conscience.


Impermanent Impermanent Vô thường 無常 Anitya impermanent, transient, illusory, as evidenced by old age, disease, and death.


Impersonality Impersonnalité Vô ngã 無我 anātman, anātmaka, nirātman, ni-rātmika, nairātmya Non-ego, not -self, impersonality


Incommensurable number Nombre incommensurable A tăng kỳ 阿僧祇劫 Asamkhya


Increased by One Āgama Sutras Les sutras des doctrines numériques Tăng nhất A hàm kinh 增一阿含經 Ekottarikāgama


Infinite hell Enfer Infini A tỳ địa ngục 阿鼻地獄 Avīci


Jhanangani - Full concentration states États de contemplation Thiền chi 禪支 Jhānangāni


Karma-reward Nghiệp báo 業報 Karma-reward; the retribution of karma, good or evil.


karmic illness Nghiệp bệnh 業病 Illness as the result of previous karma.


Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha Bồ Tát Địa Tạng 地藏菩

Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva


latter dharma derniers jours du Dharma Mạt pháp 末法 saddharma-vipralopa


Leak infections Lậu Āsrava 'flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction.' M.W. It is defined as another term for 煩惱 q.v.; also as the discharge, or outflow, from the organs of sense, wherever those exist, hence it is applied to the passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind, v. 欲有; also to the leakage or loss thereby of the 正道 truth; also to the stream of transmigration.


Liberation Libération Giải thoát 解脫 mokṣa, vimokṣa, mukti, vimukti, pi. vimutti Reach a state of liberation after having unloosed all attachments. Liberation from samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth or reincarnation and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence. Its meaning is similar to that of Nirvana in Buddhism


Light Sound heaven Ciel de Lumière Quang âm thiên 光音天 Ābhassara-deva


Longer Āgama-sutra Les longs sutras Trường A hàm kinh 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama


Love Aimer Ái Tṛṣṇā Love, affection, desire; also used for tṛṣṇā, thirst, avidity, desire, one of the twelve nidānas. It is intp. as coveting, and 染著 defiling attachment; also defined as defiling love like that toward wife and children, and undefiling love like that toward one's teachers and elders.


love and attachment; strong attachement Ái trước 愛著 Rāga


love and attachment; strong attachement An ban thủ ý kinh 安般守意經 Ānāpāna sūtra


Maitreya Maitreya Phật Di Lặc 彌勒佛 Maitreya


Marvellous method of education Enseignement merveilleux Đốn giáo 頓教


mental factors Tâm sở 心所 caitta, caitasika Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind,

especially the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法, v. 心心.


meritorious virtue Mérite Công đức 功德 Guṇa Virtue achieved; achievement; power to do meritorious works; merit; meritorious virtue; the reward of virtue; a name for 弗若多羅 Puṇyatara, one of the twenty-four 天尊 deva aryas, worshipped in China.


Metta Sutta Kinh Từ Bi 慈經 Mettā-sutta Is a Buddhist discourse (sutta) found in the Pali Canon's Sutta Nipata and Khuddakapatha. Ten verses in length, the Mettā Sutta extols both the virtuous qualities and the meditative development of mettā, traditionally translated as "lovingkindness" or "friendliness".


Middle Length Āgama Sutras Les sutras moyens Trung A hàm kinh 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama


mind-king Tâm vương 心王 caitta, caitasika The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.


mindfulness, memory Niệm smṛti Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment. mine Soi ou moi-substance Ngã ātman I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence.


Mrgadava Parc des Gazelles Lộc Uyển 鹿苑 Mṛgadāva


necklace of precious stones Anh lạc 瓔珞 Muktāhāra


nectar ambroisie, élixir Cam lộ 甘露 amṛta


Next life Prochaine existence (Vie suivante) Hậu kiếp 後劫 Abhisamparãya


Nirvāṇa Nirvāṇa Niết bàn 涅槃 Nirvāṇa nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara.


Nirvāṇa with remainder Hữu dư niết bàn 有餘涅槃 Sopadhi-śeṣa-nirvāṇa Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa, limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna holds that when the cause of reincarnation is ended the state is that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete nirvāṇa; when the effect is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body has been obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 'remainderless' nirvāṇa for the arhat there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore 有餘涅槃; in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these remains of illusion, etc., are ended.


Nirvāṇa without remainder Nirvāṇa sans reliquat Vô dư niết bàn 無餘涅槃 Nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa anupadhiśeṣa, the nirvāṇa state in which exists no remainder of the karma of suffering; it is also the nirvāṇa of arhat extinction of body and mind, described as 無餘灰斷.


Noble Eightfold Path Noble Sentier Octuple Bát chánh đạo 八正道 Aṣṭāṅgika-mārga


Noetic hindrances Sở tri chướng 所知障 Jñeyāvaraṇa The barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.


Non-active inconditionné Vô vi 無為 asaṃskṛta Non-active, passive; laisser-faire; spontaneous, natural; uncaused, not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; transcendental, not in time, unchanging, eternal, inactive, and free from the passions or senses; non-phenomenal, noumenal; also intp. as nirvāṇa, dharma-nature, reality, and dharmadhātu.


Non-appeared definite body Corps formel non-apparu Ẩn một tướng 隱沒相 One of the definite bodies of Buddha. The life of Buddha is infinite but this body is provisionally hidden.


nothing to be attained Vô sở đắc 無所得 aprāptitva


nun nonne bouddhiste Tỉ khâu ni, Tì kheo ni 比丘尼 bhiksuni


one billion worlds trois mille mondes Tam thiên đại thiên thế giới 三千大千世界 Tri-sāhasra-mahā-sāhasra-loka-dhātu Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.


One-practice samādhi Nhất hạnh tam muội 一行三昧 Ekavyūha-samādhi A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha.


original enlightenment Bản giác 本覺


original essence of all being nature de dharma Pháp tính 法性 dharmatā Dharma-nature, the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā, a Mahāyāna philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in the 法相, 三論 (or法性), 華嚴, and 天台 Schools. It is discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions, i. e. 法定 inherent dharma, or Buddha-nature; 法住 abiding dharma-nature; 法界 dharmakṣetra, realm of dharma; 法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature of the Void, i. e. immaterial nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 無相 appearance of nothingness, or immateriality; 眞如 bhūtatathatā; 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha; 平等性 universal nature; 離生性 immortal nature; 無我性 impersonal nature; 虛定界: realm of abstraction; 不虛妄性 nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable nature; 不思議界 realm beyond thought; 自性淸淨心 mind of absolute purity, or unsulliedness, etc. Of these the terms 眞如, 法性, and 實際 are most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.


other shore autre rive Bỉ ngạn 彼岸 pāra


other-power force de l'autre Tha lực 他力 Another's strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Mahāyāna salvation.


Own nature Tự tính 自性 svabhāva, sva-lakṣaṇa Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of pradhāna (and resembling 冥性) in the Sāṅkhya philosophy it is 'prakṛti, the Originant, primary or original matter or rather the primary germ out of which all material appearances are evolved, the first evolver or source of the material world (hence in a general acceptation 'nature' or rather 'matter' as opposed to purusha, or 'spirit')'. M. W. As 莎發斡 svabhāva, it is 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural state or constitution, nature'. M. W. The self-substance, self-nature, or unchanging character of anything.


Paradise Terre pure An dưỡng 安養


particularizing karma Biệt báo nghiệp 別報業


Peaceful Paisible An


Peaceful dwelling Période de retraite An cư 安居 vārṣika


perfect wisdom boddhéité Bồ đề 菩提 Bodhi knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by , later by to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi


Perfection Perfection Ba la mật 波羅蜜 pāramitā


perfection of wisdom Bát-nhã ba-la-mật 般若波羅蜜 prajñā-paramitā


Perfectly illuminated Parfaitement éveillé Đẳng giác 等覺 Sammāsam


Pity Pitié Ai mẫn 哀愍 Karṇāyamāna


possessions of the self Ngã sở 我所 mama-kāra Mine, personal, subjective; personal conditions, possessions, or anything related to the self.


Produced by causal conditions production conditionnée Duyên sinh 緣生 pratītya-samutpāda Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature


Professor Professeur A xà lê 阿闍梨 Àcàrya


Pure land Terre pure Tịnh độ 淨土 Sukhāvatī The Pure Land, or Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitābha. Other Buddhas have their Pure Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of moral or spiritual conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience, zeal, wisdom, etc.


Receptacle conscience Conscience receptacle A lại da thức 阿賴耶識 Adãna vijnãna (Àlaya)


Relic Relique Xá Lợi 舍利 Śarīra


Repent quatre formes de naissance Sám hối 懺悔 Kṣamayati chan is the translit. of kṣamā, its translation, i.e. repentance; but also the first is intp. as confession, cf. deśanā, the second as repentance and reform.


right behavior Chánh nghiệp 正業 samyak-karmānta


Right Belief Compréhension juste Chánh kiến 正見 samyag-dṛṣṭi


right concentration Concentration juste Chánh định 正定 samyaktva-niyata-rāśi Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.


right livelihood Chánh mạng 正命 samyag-ājīva


Sākyamuni Buddha Bouddha Shākyamuni Phật Thích Ca Mâu Ni 釋迦牟尼 Sākyamuni Buddha


Saṃyuktāgama Les sutras sur des sujets liés Tạp A hàm kinh 雜阿含經 Saṃyuktāgama


sadness, mournfulness Tristesse Ai thán 哀歎 Karṇāyamāna


Samādhi concentration-extatique Tam-muội 三昧 samādhi Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.


Second meditation Deuxième niveau d'expérience méditative Nhị thiền 二禪 Dvitīya-dhyāna


second meditation heaven Nhị thiền thiên 二禪天 Dvitīya-dhyāna


Secret Caché Ẩn mật 隱密 Esoteric meaning in contrast with 顯了 exoteric, or plain meaning.


self-love Ngã ái 我愛 ātma-sneha Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego, arising with the eighth vijñāna.


self-view Ngã kiến 我見 Ātma-dṛṣṭi The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five skandhas, is a reality and permanent.


sentient being êtres sensitifs ou êtres émotionnels Hữu tình 有情 sattva 有情 sattva, 薩埵 in the sense of any sentient being; the term was formerly tr. 衆生 all the living, which includes the vegetable kingdom, while 有情 limits the meaning to those endowed with consciousness.


sentient being êtres Chúng sinh 衆生 bahu-jana, jantu, jagat, sattva all the living, living beings, older tr. 有情 sentient, or conscious beings; also many lives, i.e. many transmigrations.


Separate teaching Enseignement particulier Biệt giáo 別教 The 'separate teaching of the Single Vehicle. Transcendent aspect of the single vehicle, that completely transcends the three- vehicle view. This teaching is eventually encompassed in the 'same teaching of the Single Vehicle' 同教一乘. This teaching is elucidated in the Huayan jing.


Seven jewels, tresors Sept bijoux, trésors Thất bảo 七寶 Sapta ratnāni The seven treasures, precious jewellery: - Gold, - Silver, - Beryl, - Pearl, - Emerald - Jewel - Agate


six data fields Lục trần 六塵 guṇas The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.


six destinies six mauvaises voies Lục đạo 六道 The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途, the three lower 下三途.


Six points of harmony Lục hòa 六和


Six sense-organs Six portes sensorielles Lục căn 六根 Ṣaḍ indriyāṇi The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind.


Skanda Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Skanda Bồ Tát Hộ Pháp 韋馱天 Skanda


Small vehicle Petit Véhicule Tiểu thừa 小乘 hīna-yāna


Son of Buddha enfants de bouddha Phật tử 佛子 buddha-putra Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external sons, who have not yet believed; 度子 secondary sons, Hīnayānists; 眞子 true sons, Mahāyānists.


Sphere of the infinity of space Sphère de l'infini de l'espace Không vô biên xứ 空無邊處 Ãkãsanantãyatana limitless space, the first of the formless realms


Stability Stabilité An định 安定 The mind is in a stable state. Those who left contemplation in the world of desires, begin to see appearing the contemplation states of the world of forms as conscience, concentration, joy and happiness.


Suffering - Unsatisfactoriness Souffrance Khổ Duḥkha


Sympathy Sympathie Ai


ten epithets of the Buddha titres honorifiques [dix] de Shakyamuni Thập hiệu Như Lai 十號如來 Daśa balāni Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata; 應供 Arhat; 正徧知 Samyak‐sambuddha; 明行足 Vidyācaraṇa-saṁpanna; 善逝 Sugata; 世間解 Lokavid.; 無上士 Anuttara; 調御丈夫 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi; 天人師 Śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām; 佛世尊 Buddha-lokanātha, or Bhagavān.


ten evil deeds Dix mauvaises actions Thập ác nghiệp 十惡業 daśa akuśala-karmāni The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils 十惡業 () Cf. 十善; 十戒.


ten good acts Thập thiện nghiệp 十善業 daśa kuśala-karmāni


Ten grades of Bodhisattva faith Dix étapes de la foi Thập tín 十信


Ten Ox Herding Pictures Les dix tableaux d'élevage de buffles Thập mục ngưu đồ 十牧牛圖 Ten Ox Herding Pictures represent different stages of a Buddhist to become enlightened. There are several categories of pictures, but we can classify them in 2 main categories : that introduced by Mahāyāna Buddhism and that of Zen.


Ten powers Dix forces Thập lực 十力 Daśa balāni The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind.


Ten powers of Budha Dix pouvoirs de Bouddha Như lai thập lực 如來十力 Daśa

balāni See Ten powers


ten wisdoms Thập trí 十智 Daśa jñānāni The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas."


tethers of desire Ái kết 愛結


The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi samadhi du lieu des Sens infinis Vô lượng nghĩa xứ tam muội 無量義處三昧 anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna-samādhi The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi, into which the Buddha is represented as entering before preaching the doctrine of infinity as given in the Lotus Sūtra.


The eighteen dhātu Dix-huit domaines Thập bát giới 十八界 aṣṭādaśa dhātavaḥ The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions.


The fourfold stage of mindfulness quatre méditations hinayana ou theravada Tứ niệm xứ 四念處 catvāri smṛty-upasthānāni The fourfold stage of mindfulness, thought, or meditation that follows the 五停心觀 five-fold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contemplating (1) the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) sensation, or consciousness, as always resulting in suffering; (3) mind as impermanent, merely one sensation after another; (4) things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality, and purity , , , and , i. e. the four 顚倒, but v. 四德. They are further subdivided into and particular and general, termed 別相念處 and 總相念處, and there are further subdivisions.


The fruit of karma Nghiệp quả 業果 The fruit of karma, conditions of rebirth depending on previous karmic conduct.


The ten essential qualities Dix modalités d'expression de la vie Thập như thị 十如是 The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是 environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.


The ten essential qualities Dix mondes-états Thập giới 十界 The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas.


The third region in the realm of formlessness. Troisième des quatre royaumes du monde du sans-forme Vô sở hữu xứ 無所有處 ākiñcanyāyatana The third region in the realm of formlessness.


the three evil paths, three bad migrations trois mauvaises voies Tam ác đạo 三惡

sannaku, san-akushu The hells, hungry ghosts, animals.


The threefold body trois corps Tam thân 三身 Trayaḥ kāyāḥ The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the , , and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are Vairocana, Amitābha, and Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also dharma, saṅgha, buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the or noumenon, while the other two areor phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.


the white lotus society Société du Lotus Blanc Bạch liên xã 白蓮社


Third meditation Troisième niveau d'expérience méditative Tam thiền 三禪 Tri-dhyāna


third meditation heaven Tam thiền thiên 三禪天 Tri-dhyāna


Third noble person Troisième noble personne A na hàm 阿那含 Anāgāmin Person who does not come back. It is the third of the four noble persons (āryapudgala) who left the nine categories of stains of pleasures and who does not return any more in the world of desire (kāmadhatu).


three awarenesses trois connaissances mystiques Tam minh 三明 tisro-vidyāḥ


three categories of self-restraint trois plans Tam giới 三界 trayo dhātavaḥ Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are , , and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of and sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderfula semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. three conditions trois catégories d'actions ou trois sortes de karma Tam nghiệp 三業 Trīṇi karmāṇi The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, , , . (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three.


Three delusions Trois illusions Tam hoặc 三惑 A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) , , things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.


three destinies trois voies Tam đồ 三塗 The mire is interpreted by a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords.


three gates of liberation trois méditations pour la délivrance Tam giải thoát môn 三解脫門 trīṇi vimokṣa-mukhāni


Three hindrances Trois obstacles Tam chướng 三障 Trīṇy āvaranāni The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the passions, i.e. 三毒 desire, hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions.


three kinds of blessings Tam phước 三福


Three kinds of suffering Trois souffrances Tam khổ 三苦 Tisro-duḥkhatāḥ The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or

impermanency of all things.


Three kinds of wisdom trois sortes de sagesse Tam trí 三智 Three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with , , . (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas.


Three poisons Trois poisons Tam độc 三毒 they are concupiscence, or wrong desire, anger, hate, or resentment, and stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31.


three practices trois disciplines Tam học 三學 tisraḥ śikṣāḥ


three times trois phases de l'existence Tam thế 三世 trayo dhvānaḥ See Ten powers


three treasures trois trésors Tam bảo 三寶 triratna Three Precious Ones: Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.


Three uncontaminated studies Trois disciplines Tam vô lậu học 三無漏學 Tisraḥ śikṣāh The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) Moral discipline; (b) meditation, or trance; (c) the resulting wisdom.


three vehicles trois véhicules Tam thừa 三乘 trīṇi yānāni the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled ,, and . Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles , , or , , , the and conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the ; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the ; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the . (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.


Thus have I heard Ainsi ai-je entendu Như thị ngã văn 如是我聞 Evaṁ mayā srutam


true thusness ainsité Chân như 真如 bhūta-tathatātathatā Theis intp. as 眞實 the real, as 如常 thus always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality, or appearance, and 不變不改 unchanging or immutable as contrasted with form and phenomena. It resembles the ocean in contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. The word is fundamental to Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 法身 dharmakāya; 如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, or Buddha-treasury; 實相 reality; 法界 Dharma-realm; 法性Dharma-nature; 圓成實性 The complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the void, static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, phenomenal; pure, and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas, defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible in words. (3) 無相 Formless; 無生 uncreated; 無性 without nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the 唯識論 8; the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the other of the 圓教, cf. 菩提心義 4; the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.


twelve divisions of the Buddhist canon douze procédés Thập nhị bộ kinh 十二部經 dvādaśāṅga-buddha-vacana


twelve sense fields douze entrées Thập nhị xứ 十二處 dvādaśa āyatanani


Two hindrances Nhị chướng 二障 The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc.


two kinds of attachment to self Nhị ngã chấp 二我執 The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) reasoning.


two kinds of meditation Nhị quán 二觀


two vehicles deux véhicules Nhị thừa 二乘 paramārtha-yāna


Two views of self Nhị ngã kiến 二我見 The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature.


Unrealistic thought Pensée irréaliste Điên đảo tưởng 顛倒想 Delirious cogitation and delusive, mad, unrealistic thoughts which make us unhappy, annoying.


Venerable Vénérable Đại đức 大德 Bhadanta Big virtuousness. This name was used before to indicate the monks having big virtuousness. Now, it is used to indicate all monks in general (bhikkhus)


waters with eight attributes Bát công đức thuỷ 八功德水


Whatever is phenomenal is impermanent. impermanence des multiples mouvements Chư hành vô thường 諸行無常 Anityāḥ sarva-saṃskārāḥ Whatever is phenomenal is impermanent.


White clothing adepte en blanc, Bạch y 白衣 avadāta-vasana White clothing, said to be that of Brahmans and other people, hence it and 白俗 are terms for the common people. It is a name also for Guanyin.


willow twigs Dương chi 楊枝 Dantakāṣṭha


Wisdom Sagesse Bát nhã 般若 prajñā


Wisdom Sagesse, Sapience Tuệ Prajñā, jñāna Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with , though not correctly, for zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals.


Without effort Sans effort Vô công dụng 無功用 An-ābhoga


world-honored one Vénéré du Monde Thế tôn 世尊 Lokanātha, Bhagavat world's most Venerable, or lokanātha, lord of worlds. 盧迦委斯諦; 路迦那他 World-honoured, an epithet of every Buddha.

wrong view Ác kiến 惡見 dṛśmithyā-dṛṣṭi