a moment Sát na 刹那 kṣaṇa
Absolute truth Aspect de la pure ainsité Đệ nhất nghĩa đế 第一義諦 paramārtha-satya The supreme truth, or reality in contrast with the seeming; also called Veritable truth, sage-truth, surpassing truth, nirvāṇa, bhūtatathatā, madhya, śūnyatā, etc.
action karma Nghiệp 業 Karman "action, work, deed"; "moral duty"; "product, result, effect." M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras.
activities of the mind actes mentaux Tâm hành 心行 citta-carya The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.
affliction Hoặc 惑 Affliction Kết sử 結使 The bondage and instigators of the passions.
Afflictive hindrances Désirs terrestres Phiền não chướng 煩惱障 Kleśāvaraṇa The barrier of temptation, passion, or defilement, which obstructs the attainment of the nirvāṇa-mind.
Agama Agama A hàm 阿含 Āgama Āgama means the place where concentrate all words of educations of Buddha and the doctrine during 49 years.
Agama period Période Agama A hàm thời 阿含時 According to Tien Tai School, the Buddha's Sutras are divided into Five Periods
1. the Avatamsaka Period,
2. the Agama Period,
3. the Vaipulya Period,
4. the Prajna Period, and
5. the Dharma Flower-Nirvana Periods.
The period of speaking the Agama Sutras, 12 years
during travelling in 16 countries, was for the teaching of the Small Vehicle,
and for those with the lowest situation.
Agitation Agitation Trạo cử 掉舉 auddhatya
Indicate a continuously agitated state which became an obstacle of meditative
Ajatashatru Ajatashatru A xà thế 阿闍世 Ajatashatru Name of the king
of Magadha (the ancient kingdom of India). At the time of Buddha, the prince
Ajatashatru listened to his bad friend Devadatta, a cousin and an adversary of
Buddha, to put his father-king in jail and to eliminate Buddha. Later, with his
remorse, he came to ask for shelter to Buddha and become a very efficient
protector of Buddhism.
Ajita Ajita A dật đa 阿逸多 Ajita
universal wisdom Chủng trí 種智 sarvathā-jñāna perfect buddha-wisdom that fully knows every
single thing in existence
All-inclusive wisdom; universal wisdom Omniscience
Nhất thiết chủng trí 一切種智 Sarvathā-jñāna Is an exclusive wisdom
of a perfect Buddha, the wisdom which knows the reality such which.
Amitabha Budha Bouddha Amitabha Phật A Di Đà 阿彌陀佛 Amitābha Budha
mantra Mantra d'Amitabha A di đà chú 阿彌陀咒 Amitābha mantra A sacred
expression of Amitabha Buddhawhich protects the mind of the person who recites
and allows him to attain the Pure Lane after death.
Ananda Ananda A nan
(đà) 阿難 Ānanda
Was the cousin, one of the main disciple of Buddha, and his personal assistant
during twenty-five years. A this function, he was the one who gathered most
words of Gautama, and was requested for his death to recite Sutta Pikata so
that memory does not get lost.
Anathapindika Bienfaiteur des nécessiteux
Cấp cô độc 給孤獨 Anàthapindika
anger colère Sân khuể 瞋恚 pratigha one of the six fundamental kleśas, anger, ire,
wrath, resentment, one of the three poisons; also called 瞋恚.
Antidote Antidote Đối trị 對治 Pratipakṣa Antidote anti-trouble.
Arhat, Arahan Arhat A la hán 阿羅漢 Arahan According to Theravada, it is the fourth and highest noble being, who, has eliminated completely all activities and stains of passions. It's also one of ten synonymes of Buddha, a noble person who merits to accept offertories; eliminating vainglory, agitation and ignorance; liberating the cycle of reincarnation; having nothing to learn anymore
Ascétisme Khổ hạnh 苦行 Duṣkara-caryā Asceticism is a
volunteer discipline of the body and mind trying to strive towards a
aspiration for enlightenment aspiration à l'Eveil Bồ đề tâm 菩提心 bodhi-citta
Attachment (or desire) and views Ái kiến 愛見
Attachment, Desire Attachement,
Désir Ái dục 愛欲 Tṛṣṇā,
toṣayati, priya Craving or excessive or inappropriate desire
Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Avaloskiteshvara Bồ Tát Quán Thế Âm 觀世音菩薩 Avalokiteśvara
Be mindful of the meritorious virtues of the Buddha Méditer
sur un bouddha Niệm phật 念佛 Buddhānusmṛti To repeat the name of a Buddha, audibly or
Become enlightened Illumination Giác ngộ 覺悟 To
awake, become enlightened, comprehend spiritual reality.
fearlessness Octroi-Courage, Donateur de Sécurité Thí vô uý giả 施無畏者 abhaya-dāna
Blue lotus Lotus bleu Ưu bát la 優鉢羅 Utpala
Bodhi tree Arbre de la Bodhi Bồ đề thụ 菩提樹 bodhi druma that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment, and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there.
Boddhi Dharma Bồ Đề Đạt Ma 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma
Bồ tát 菩薩 Bodhisattva
brahma heaven Brahma Phạm thiên 梵天 Brahmā、Brahma-deva
Bà la môn 婆羅門 Brāhmaṇa
Brahman is part of the upper rank in India.They are the most important and
respectable men. They are the priests, teachers and men of law. More in
general, a Brahman is a literary man having important knowledge.
counting meditation samadhi du compter-du-souffle Số tức quán 數息觀 ānāpāna-smṛti
To count the breathing in order to calm mind and body for meditation
Phật 佛 Buddha
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive",
"observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means
"completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the
enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and
knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and
multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha,
is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are
definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly
known as 三寳佛,
while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law
the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as
manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the
last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be
the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having
discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others
all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations;
this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation,
the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one,
himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to
Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as
they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really
are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality
(twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat.
Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka
who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the
Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the
Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and
Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he
is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time;
Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many
Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.
wisdom Phật trí 佛智
Buddha-wisdom, i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awareness or intelligence;
Buddha-nature Bouddha nature Phật tính 佛性 Buddha-dhātu
The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every
gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature
remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two
forms: 理 noumenal,
in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and 行 phenomenal, in action. While
every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivated in order to
produce its ripe fruit.
Buddhist monk Moine bouddhiste Tỉ khâu, Tì kheo 比丘 Bhikkhu, Bhikṣu a religious mendicant, an almsman, one who has left home, been fully ordained, and depends on alms for a living. Some are styled 乞士 mendicant scholars, all are 釋種 Śākya-seed, offspring of Buddha. The Chinese characters are clearly used as a phonetic equivalent, but many attempts have been made to give meanings to the two words, e. g. 比 as 破 and 丘 as 煩惱, hence one who destroys the passions and delusions, also 悕能 able to overawe Māra and his minions; also 除饉 to get rid of dearth, moral and spiritual. Two kinds 内乞 and 外乞; both indicate self-control, the first by internal mental or spiritual methods, the second by externals such as strict diet. 苾芻 is a fragrant plant, emblem of the monastic life.
silent place Lieu calme A lan nhã 阿蘭若 Àranya
cause and effect causalité Nhân quả 因果 hetu-phala Cause and effect;
every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause.
effect causalité Nhân quả ứng báo 因果應報 hetu-phala Cause and effect in the
moral realm have their corresponding relations, the denial of which destroys
all moral responsibility.
characteristics of phenomena Pháp tướng 法相 The
aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ
in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap.
Hossō), called also 慈恩宗
sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩.
It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n
contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the
marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the
fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An
inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the
Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence,
both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . .
they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The
Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in
China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya
works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or
nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經,
and the 瑜伽論.
It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools,
e.g. the 三論 school;
yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a
profoundly mystic one". Anesaki.
compassion Từ Bi 慈悲 maitrya
Concentration of cessation Diệt tận định 滅盡定 Nirodhasamāpatti
Hữu lậu 有漏 Sāsrava
contaminated Dục lậu 欲漏 kāmāsrava
Content with few desires désirer peu, se
rejouir d'un rien Thiểu dục tri túc 少欲知足 alpeccha saṃtuṣṭa Content with few
correct effort Chánh tinh tiến 正精進 samyak-prahāṇāni
correct mindfulness Chánh niệm 正念 samyak-smṛti Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.
speech Chánh ngữ 正語 samyag-vāc
correct thought Chánh tư duy 正思惟 samyak-saṃkalpa
Crimes which requires expiation Fautes qui exigent l'expiation Ba dật đề
The monks and the buddhist nones have to respect precepts. Those who make
errors, have to repair them by expressing their regret.
deed as cause Nghiệp
nhân 業因 karma-hetu
The deed as cause; the cause of good or bad karma.
delusion regarding the
self Ngã si 我癡
Ego-infatuation, confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.
origination, conditioned genesis, dependent co-arising coproduction
conditionnée, interdépendance des phénomènes Duyên khởi 縁起 pratītya-samutpāda
Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not
being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature
Dharma Pháp 法 Dharma
Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held
fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty';
'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all
things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal,
affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma
is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes
Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧,
and in the sense of 法身
it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media
of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.
discursive thought and investigation signifie pensée conceptuelle Tầm tứ
two conditions in dhyāna discovery and analysis of principles; vitarka 毘擔迦 a
dharma which tends to increase, and vicāra 毘遮羅one which tends to diminish,
definiteness and clearness in the stream of consciousness; cf. 中間定.
disposition Tuỳ miên 隨眠 Anuśaya Yielding to sleep, sleepiness, drowsiness,
one of the kleśa, or temptations; also used by the Sarvāstivādins as an
equivalent for kleśa, the passions and delusions; by the 唯識 school
as the seed of kleśa; there are categories of 6, 7, 10, 12, and 98 kinds of 隨眠.
karmic reward Biệt báo 別報 Distinct karmic reward; also
Activity--referring to relatively quickly actualized karma which generates more
detailed difference between beings, such as the distinction in being born as
rich or poor, beautiful or ugly, etc. This is as contrasted with more
generalized karmic results, such as the species in which one is born, etc.,
Also similar in meaning to 衣報.
distinct states; special objects Biệt cảnh 別境 vibhāvanā
The ideas, or mental states which arise according to the various objects or
conditions toward which the mind is directed. A special mental function that
does not necessarily arise through all minds but rather accords to the
'mind-king' only in special situations--a mental function that judges special
objects. The complement of the 'pervasively functioning' (bianxing 遍行)
elements. According to the Faxiang 法相 sect, this group of elements falls
under the general category of 'mental function' (心所) elements. 別境 includes
five elements, which are desire (欲), verification (勝解), recollection (念), meditation (定) and wisdom (慧).
characteristics Caractéristique particulière Biệt tướng 別相 bheda
Donate Don / Donateur - Dana Đàn na 檀那 Dāna to give, donate, bestow,
donation Le don Bố thí 布施 Dāna the sixth pāramitā,
almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and
also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation, as neglect or refusal will
produce the opposite consequences. The 二種布施 two kinds of dāna are the
pure, or unsullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter;
and the sullied almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of
dāna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are
pens to write the sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five
kinds are giving to those who have come from a distance, those who are going to
a distance, the sick, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds
are giving to visitors, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, endowments
for the sustenance of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season.
The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of
evil), return for kindness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing
the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular
heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 倶舍論 18.
egocentrism Ngã chấp 我執 Ātma-grāha holding to the concept of the ego
by contemplation on dependent arising éveillé pour soi Duyên giác 緣覺 Pratyekabuddha
In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through
reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas.
Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from
others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the
altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited
to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning
of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The
non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers
and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the
twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism,
receiving its definition at a later period.
esoteric Buddhism Mật giáo 密教
behavior Conduite méchante Ác hành 惡行
evil destinies Ác
thú 惡趣 Durgati
evil destiny Ác đạo 惡道
cảm 業感 The
influence of karma; caused by karma.
Fearlessness Absence de crainte Vô
úy 無畏 Vaiśāradya,
Abhaya Absence of fright : when teaching the dharma, the Buddha and bodhisattva
speak with trust, safety, without fear, firm and peace.
First meditation Premier
niveau d'expérience méditative Sơ thiền 初禪 Prathama-dhyāna
meditation heaven Sơ thiền thiên 初禪天 prathama-dhyāna
five afflictions of advanced practitioners cinq points de vue erronés Ngũ lợi sử 五利使 pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見,
five afflictions that affect beginning practitioners cinq passions
illusoires Ngũ độn sử 五鈍使 pañca-kleśa The five dull,
unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger
or resentment, 癡 stupidity
or foolishness, 慢 arrogance,
Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅.
Of the ten 十使 or
agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher
Five aggregates Cinq agrégats Ngũ uẩn 五蘊 Pañca
Skandha The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations,
substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being,
specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five
organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of
the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā,
conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra,
the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and
evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna,
mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs
and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities;
(2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所;
(5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas.
Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also
Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.
Five coverings cinq voiles Ngũ cái 五蓋 pañca
āvaraṇāni The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger,
drowsiness, excitability, doubt.
five defilements cinq impuretés ou cinq
troubles Ngũ trược 五濁
kaṣāyāḥ The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of
decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life
begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it
suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration
of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire,
anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries
increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes
to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself
and the fourth and fifth its results.
desires cinq désirs Ngũ dục 五欲 pañca kāmāḥ The five desires,
arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted,
or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and
five faculties Ngũ căn 五根 Pañcendriyāṇi
five heinous crimes cinq
forfaits Ngũ nghịch 五逆
The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an
arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or
fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The
lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group
is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a
Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure
therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas,
or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the
five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill
deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III.
There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first
set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a
bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five
unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community;
(2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to
let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5)
put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him
five kinds of authorities of the doctrine cinq sortes de
maîtres du dharma Ngũ chủng pháp sư 五種法師
five kinds of remorse Ngũ
meditations and four bases of mindfulness cinq méditations Ngũ đình tâm
quán 五停心觀 the
five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of
desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five
meditations are 不淨觀,
e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination,
breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth;
another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.
powers Cinq forces Ngũ lực 五力 pañca balāni the five powers or faculties — one of the
categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five
obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt);
zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala,
concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering
thoughts); and 慧力
wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent
powers, i. e. 定力 the
power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of
'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by
beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a
vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the
five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.
Five precepts Cinq
préceptes Ngũ giới 五戒
śīlāni the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing,
adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity,
male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five
ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its
five vehicles cinq véhicules Ngũ thừa 五乗 pañca yāna The five vehicles
conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are
generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five
commandments; (2) 天乘
the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four
noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘
pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and
bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various
vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and
devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods
of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna
ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one
all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas;
śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The
esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas,
with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the
five wrong views Ngũ kiến 五見 pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ The five wrong
views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi,
i. e. 我見 and
view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha,
extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which,
denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa,
stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the
worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in
favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf.
forget thoughts, mistaken thought or conceptualization Illusion Vọng tưởng
Four bases of supernatural power Tứ thần túc 四神足 catvāra ṛddhi-pādāḥ
correct endeavors Tứ chính cần 四正勤 catvāri prahāṇāni
four great vows
of bodhisattvahood quatre voeux du bodhisattva Tứ hoằng thệ nguyện 四弘誓願 quatre
voeux du bodhisattva (shi guzeigan, shigu-seigan, 四弘誓願). Quatre grands voeux
prononcés par un bodhisattva quand il prend la décision de s'engager dans la
pratique bouddhique : 1) faire passer l’infinité des êtres (sur la rive du
nirvana) ; 2) trancher les innombrables passions ; 3) connaître l’insondable
des enseignements du Bouddha ; 4) attester de la prééminence de la voie
four immeasurable minds Quatre incommensurables Tứ Vô Lượng
Tâm (Từ Bi Hỷ Xả) 四無量心
apramāṇāni the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also
styled 四等 the
four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics; i. e.
four of the twelve 禪 dhyānas:
kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to
save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing
others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference, upekṣā, i. e.
rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of
friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special
definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢;
虛 空 藏;
or 盧 空 庫.
four kinds of birth quatre formes de naissance Tứ sinh 四生 catasro-yonayaḥ
Catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) 胎 or 生 jarāyuja, viviparous, as with
mammalia; (2) 卵生 aṇḍaja,
oviparous, as with birds; (3) 濕生 or 寒熱和合生 saṃsvedaja, moisture, or water-born,
as with worms and fishes; (4) 化生 aupapāduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis,
or with devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.
lands Terres quatre Tứ độ 四土 Buddha-kṣetra The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of
Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms
where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples,
non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the
pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the
occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and
thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and
freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm
of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya),
the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and
are only separated for convenience, sake.
four meditation heavens Tứ thiền
thiên 四禪天 Caturdhyānabhūmi
Four methods of winning (people) over Tứ nhiếp pháp 四攝法 Catvāri
four wisdoms Tứ trí 四智 catvāri jñānāni
meditation Quatrième niveau d'expérience méditative Tứ thiền 四禪 Catvāri
fragmentary samsāra Phân đoạn sinh tử 分段生死 limited birth-and-death
of fearlessness Don de courage Vô úy thí 無畏施 Abhayadãna
Go; act; do Hành
Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done
by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana,
going, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for
saṁskāra, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to
karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. 業.
good and virtuous friend ami
de bien Thiện tri thức 善知識 Kalyāṇa-mitra
good and virtuous
friend ami néfaste ou ami du mal Ác tri thức 悪知識 pāpa-mitra
grave offenses Ba
la di 波羅夷 Pārājika
Great Assembly Grande Assemblée Đại chúng 大眾 Mahāsaṃgha
Grande compassion Đại bi 大悲 mahākaruṇā
Great Compassion Mantra Mantra de la
Grande Compassion Chú Đại Bi - Đại Bi Tâm Đà La Ni 大悲咒 Maha Karunika citta Dharani
great enlightenment Grand Eveil Đại giác 大覺 The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and
enlightening power of a Buddha.
Great kindness Amour universel Đại từ 大慈 mahā-maitrī
It is love, universal love, to hope and to share joy to all beings.
Vehicle Grand Véhicule Đại thừa 大乘 Mahāyāna
heart, mind, spirit,
motive, sense, mentality, idea Tâm 心 citta 心 hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or
heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both
senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions, of which
the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or
nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or
totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas,
the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating
mind; (5) 堅實心 the
bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the
hell enfer Địa ngục 地獄 naraka
Hidden essence of boudha Nature
cachée de bouddha Ẩn một Như lai tạng 隱沒如來藏 Every being has an essence of Buddha
but it is hidden by the factors of disturbances.
Hindrance Nghiệp chướng
The screen, or hindrance, of past karma, hindering the attainment of bodhi.
ghost esprits affamés Ngạ quỷ 餓鬼 preta hungry spirits, one of the three
lower destinies. They are of varied classes, numbering nine or thirty-six, and
are in differing degrees and kinds of suffering, some wealthy and of light
torment, others possessing nothing and in perpetual torment; some are jailers
and executioners of Yama in the hells, others wander to and fro amongst men,
especially at night. Their city or region is called 餓鬼城; 餓鬼界. Their destination or path is
the 餓鬼趣 or
identity arrogance Ngã mạn 我慢 Asmimāna Iidentity; self-pride, pride;
conceit. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication,
arrogance Mạn 慢 Asmimāna
obscurité fondamentale Vô minh 無明 Avidyā Commonly tr.
'ignorance', means an unenlightened condition, non-perception, before the
stirrings of intelligence, belief that the phenomenal is real, etc.
conscience Conscience immaculée A ma la thức 阿摩羅識 Amala-vijñāna Pure conscience,
is also the ninth conscience.
Impermanent Impermanent Vô thường 無常 Anitya
impermanent, transient, illusory, as evidenced by old age, disease, and death.
Impersonnalité Vô ngã 無我 anātman, anātmaka, nirātman, ni-rātmika, nairātmya Non-ego,
not -self, impersonality
Incommensurable number Nombre incommensurable A
tăng kỳ 阿僧祇劫 Asamkhya
Increased by One Āgama Sutras Les sutras des doctrines numériques Tăng
nhất A hàm kinh 增一阿含經
Infinite hell Enfer Infini A tỳ địa ngục 阿鼻地獄 Avīci
Jhanangani - Full
concentration states États de contemplation Thiền chi 禪支 Jhānangāni
Karma-reward Nghiệp báo 業報 Karma-reward; the retribution of karma, good or evil.
illness Nghiệp bệnh 業病 Illness as the result of previous karma.
Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha Bồ Tát Địa Tạng 地藏菩
latter dharma derniers jours du Dharma Mạt pháp 末法 saddharma-vipralopa
Leak infections Lậu 漏 Āsrava 'flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain,
affliction.' M.W. It is defined as another term for 煩惱 q.v.; also as the discharge,
or outflow, from the organs of sense, wherever those exist, hence it is applied
to the passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind, v. 欲有;
also to the leakage or loss thereby of the 正道 truth; also to the stream of
Liberation Libération Giải thoát 解脫 mokṣa,
vimokṣa, mukti, vimukti, pi. vimutti Reach a state of liberation after having
unloosed all attachments. Liberation from samsara, the cycle of death and
rebirth or reincarnation and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly
existence. Its meaning is similar to that of Nirvana in Buddhism
heaven Ciel de Lumière Quang âm thiên 光音天 Ābhassara-deva
Āgama-sutra Les longs sutras Trường A hàm kinh 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama
Ái 愛 Tṛṣṇā
Love, affection, desire; also used for tṛṣṇā, thirst, avidity, desire, one of
the twelve nidānas. It is intp. as 貪 coveting, and 染著 defiling attachment; also
defined as defiling love like that toward wife and children, and undefiling
love like that toward one's teachers and elders.
love and attachment; strong
attachement Ái trước 愛著 Rāga
love and attachment; strong attachement An ban
thủ ý kinh 安般守意經 Ānāpāna
Maitreya Maitreya Phật Di Lặc 彌勒佛 Maitreya
method of education Enseignement merveilleux Đốn giáo 頓教
mental factors Tâm sở 心所 caitta, caitasika Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind,
the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法,
meritorious virtue Mérite Công đức 功德 Guṇa Virtue achieved;
achievement; power to do meritorious works; merit; meritorious virtue; the
reward of virtue; a name for 弗若多羅 Puṇyatara, one of the twenty-four 天尊 deva
aryas, worshipped in China.
Metta Sutta Kinh Từ Bi 慈經 Mettā-sutta
Is a Buddhist discourse (sutta) found in the Pali Canon's Sutta Nipata and
Khuddakapatha. Ten verses in length, the Mettā Sutta extols both the virtuous
qualities and the meditative development of mettā, traditionally translated as
"lovingkindness" or "friendliness".
Middle Length Āgama
Sutras Les sutras moyens Trung A hàm kinh 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama
vương 心王 caitta,
caitasika The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning
mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.
mindfulness, memory Niệm
Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a
moment. mine Soi ou moi-substance Ngã 我 ātman I, my, mine; the ego,
the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the
five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self,
personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我,
no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous
idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all
illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the
transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of
Mahāyāna supports such permanence.
Mrgadava Parc des Gazelles Lộc Uyển 鹿苑 Mṛgadāva
necklace of precious stones Anh lạc 瓔珞 Muktāhāra
élixir Cam lộ 甘露 amṛta
Next life Prochaine existence (Vie suivante) Hậu kiếp 後劫 Abhisamparãya
Nirvāṇa Nirvāṇa Niết bàn 涅槃 Nirvāṇa nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out,
extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.'
'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction
or annihilation, complete extinction of individual
existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put
out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil
extinction; 無爲 inaction,
without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to
'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual
extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all
misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not
without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all
return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss.
Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry
into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder',
i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been
destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been
extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence
of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere
of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential
to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but
returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the
ancient ideas of 常樂我淨
bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that
Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the
existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is
also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his
earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara.
Nirvāṇa with remainder Hữu dư niết
bàn 有餘涅槃 Sopadhi-śeṣa-nirvāṇa
Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal
existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa,
limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa.
Mahāyāna holds that when the cause 因 of reincarnation is ended the state is
that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete
nirvāṇa; when the effect 果 is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body has been
obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say
that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 'remainderless' nirvāṇa for the arhat
there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore 有餘涅槃;
in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these
remains of illusion, etc., are ended.
Nirvāṇa without remainder Nirvāṇa
sans reliquat Vô dư niết bàn 無餘涅槃 Nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa anupadhiśeṣa,
the nirvāṇa state in which exists no remainder of the karma of suffering; it is
also the nirvāṇa of arhat extinction of body and mind, described as 無餘灰斷.
Eightfold Path Noble Sentier Octuple Bát chánh đạo 八正道 Aṣṭāṅgika-mārga
Noetic hindrances Sở tri chướng 所知障 Jñeyāvaraṇa The barrier of the
known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.
Vô vi 無為 asaṃskṛta
Non-active, passive; laisser-faire; spontaneous, natural; uncaused, not subject
to cause, condition, or dependence; transcendental, not in time, unchanging,
eternal, inactive, and free from the passions or senses; non-phenomenal,
noumenal; also intp. as nirvāṇa, dharma-nature, reality, and dharmadhātu.
definite body Corps formel non-apparu Ẩn một tướng 隱沒相 One of the definite bodies of
Buddha. The life of Buddha is infinite but this body is provisionally hidden.
to be attained Vô sở đắc 無所得 aprāptitva
nonne bouddhiste Tỉ khâu ni, Tì kheo ni 比丘尼 bhiksuni
one billion worlds trois mille mondes Tam thiên đại thiên thế giới 三千大千世界 Tri-sāhasra-mahā-sāhasra-loka-dhātu
Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron
mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界;
1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界;
a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1,
000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is
the same as 大千世界,
which is one Buddha-world.
One-practice samādhi Nhất hạnh tam muội 一行三昧 Ekavyūha-samādhi
A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says
all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind
enlightenment Bản giác 本覺
original essence of all being nature
de dharma Pháp tính 法性
Dharma-nature, the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā, a Mahāyāna
philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in
and 天台 Schools.
It is discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and
dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous
alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions, i. e. 法定 inherent
dharma, or Buddha-nature; 法住 abiding dharma-nature; 法界 dharmakṣetra, realm of dharma;
embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature
of the Void, i. e. immaterial nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 無相 appearance
of nothingness, or immateriality; 眞如 bhūtatathatā; 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha; 平等性 universal
nature; 離生性 immortal
nature; 無我性 impersonal
realm of abstraction; 不虛妄性 nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable
nature; 不思議界 realm
beyond thought; 自性淸淨心
of absolute purity, or unsulliedness, etc. Of these the terms 眞如,
and 實際 are
most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
other shore autre rive Bỉ ngạn 彼岸 pāra
other-power force de l'autre Tha lực 他力 Another's strength, especially
that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Mahāyāna salvation.
Own nature Tự tính 自性 svabhāva, sva-lakṣaṇa Own nature; of (its) own nature. As
an intp. of pradhāna (and resembling 冥性) in the Sāṅkhya philosophy it is
'prakṛti, the Originant, primary or original matter or rather the primary germ
out of which all material appearances are evolved, the first evolver or source
of the material world (hence in a general acceptation 'nature' or rather
'matter' as opposed to purusha, or 'spirit')'. M. W. As 莎發斡 svabhāva,
it is 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar
disposition, natural state or constitution, nature'. M. W. The self-substance,
self-nature, or unchanging character of anything.
Paradise Terre pure An
karma Biệt báo nghiệp 別報業
dwelling Période de retraite An cư 安居 vārṣika
perfect wisdom boddhéité
Bồ đề 菩提 Bodhi
knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind;
anciently intp. by 道,
later by 覺 to
be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi
Perfection Ba la mật 波羅蜜 pāramitā
wisdom Bát-nhã ba-la-mật 般若波羅蜜 prajñā-paramitā
illuminated Parfaitement éveillé Đẳng giác 等覺 Sammāsam
Pity Pitié Ai
mẫn 哀愍 Karṇāyamāna
possessions of the self Ngã sở 我所 mama-kāra Mine, personal, subjective;
personal conditions, possessions, or anything related to the self.
by causal conditions production conditionnée Duyên sinh 緣生 pratītya-samutpāda
Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not
being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature
Professor Professeur A xà lê 阿闍梨 Àcàrya
land Terre pure Tịnh độ 淨土 Sukhāvatī The Pure Land, or
Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitābha. Other Buddhas have their Pure
Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of
moral or spiritual conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience,
zeal, wisdom, etc.
Receptacle conscience Conscience receptacle A lại da
thức 阿賴耶識 Adãna
Relic Relique Xá Lợi 舍利 Śarīra
formes de naissance Sám hối 懺悔 Kṣamayati chan is the translit. of kṣamā, 悔 its
translation, i.e. repentance; but also the first is intp. as confession, cf. 提 deśanā,
the second as repentance and reform.
right behavior Chánh nghiệp 正業 samyak-karmānta
Right Belief Compréhension juste Chánh kiến 正見 samyag-dṛṣṭi
concentration Concentration juste Chánh định 正定 samyaktva-niyata-rāśi
Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a
livelihood Chánh mạng 正命 samyag-ājīva
Sākyamuni Buddha Bouddha Shākyamuni Phật
Thích Ca Mâu Ni 釋迦牟尼
Saṃyuktāgama Les sutras sur des sujets liés Tạp A hàm kinh 雜阿含經 Saṃyuktāgama
sadness, mournfulness Tristesse Ai thán 哀歎 Karṇāyamāna
Tam-muội 三昧 samādhi
Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation,
perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation."
(M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提,
Interpreted by 定 or
the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object
contemplated; by 調直定
and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the
mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction
and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to
stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an
object). The aim is 解脫,
mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions
and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or
trance. Dhyāna 定 represents
a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and
samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is
considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says:
the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active
thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and
the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there
is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2;
9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.
meditation Deuxième niveau d'expérience méditative Nhị thiền 二禪 Dvitīya-dhyāna
second meditation heaven Nhị thiền thiên 二禪天 Dvitīya-dhyāna
Ẩn mật 隱密 Esoteric
meaning in contrast with 顯了 exoteric, or plain meaning.
Ngã ái 我愛 ātma-sneha Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego,
arising with the eighth vijñāna.
self-view Ngã kiến 我見 Ātma-dṛṣṭi
The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five
skandhas, is a reality and permanent.
sentient being êtres sensitifs ou
êtres émotionnels Hữu tình 有情 sattva 有情 sattva, 薩埵 in the sense of any sentient being; the term was formerly
tr. 衆生 all
the living, which includes the vegetable kingdom, while 有情 limits
the meaning to those endowed with consciousness.
sentient being êtres
Chúng sinh 衆生 bahu-jana,
jantu, jagat, sattva all the living, living beings, older tr. 有情 sentient,
or conscious beings; also many lives, i.e. many transmigrations.
teaching Enseignement particulier Biệt giáo 別教 The 'separate teaching of the
Single Vehicle. Transcendent aspect of the single vehicle, that completely
transcends the three- vehicle view. This teaching is eventually encompassed in
the 'same teaching of the Single Vehicle' 同教一乘. This teaching is elucidated
in the Huayan jing.
jewels, tresors Sept bijoux, trésors Thất bảo 七寶 Sapta
ratnāni The seven treasures, precious jewellery: - Gold, - Silver, - Beryl, -
Pearl, - Emerald - Jewel - Agate
data fields Lục trần 六塵 guṇas The six guṇas, qualities
produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste,
touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or
discernments the 六識;
Dust 塵 is
dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the
Buddha made use of them to preach his law.
six destinies six mauvaises
voies Lục đạo 六道 The
six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途,
the three lower 下三途.
Six points of harmony Lục hòa 六和
Six sense-organs Six
portes sensorielles Lục căn 六根 Ṣaḍ indriyāṇi The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear,
nose, tongue, body, and mind.
Skanda Bodhisattva Bodhisattva Skanda Bồ
Tát Hộ Pháp 韋馱天 Skanda
Small vehicle Petit Véhicule Tiểu thừa 小乘 hīna-yāna
Son of Buddha enfants
de bouddha Phật tử 佛子
Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is
becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of
Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external sons, who have not
yet believed; 度子 secondary
sons, Hīnayānists; 眞子
Sphere of the infinity of space Sphère de l'infini de
l'espace Không vô biên xứ 空無邊處 Ãkãsanantãyatana limitless space, the
first of the formless realms
Stabilité An định 安定 The mind is in a stable state. Those
who left contemplation in the world of desires, begin to see appearing the
contemplation states of the world of forms as conscience, concentration, joy
Suffering - Unsatisfactoriness Souffrance Khổ 苦 Duḥkha
Sympathy Sympathie Ai 哀
ten epithets of the Buddha titres
honorifiques [dix] de Shakyamuni Thập hiệu Như Lai 十號如來 Daśa balāni Ten titles of a
Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata;
ten evil deeds Dix mauvaises actions Thập ác nghiệp 十惡業 daśa
akuśala-karmāni The ten "not right" or evil things are killing,
stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language,
covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils 十惡業 (道) Cf. 十善; 十戒.
ten good acts Thập
thiện nghiệp 十善業 daśa
Ten grades of Bodhisattva faith Dix étapes de la foi Thập
Ox Herding Pictures Les dix tableaux d'élevage de buffles
Thập mục ngưu đồ 十牧牛圖
Ox Herding Pictures represent different stages of a Buddhist to become
enlightened. There are several categories of pictures, but we can classify them
in 2 main categories : that introduced by Mahāyāna Buddhism and that of Zen.
powers Dix forces Thập lực 十力 Daśa balāni The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete
knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the
karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna
liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the
desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every
individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of
mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and
nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind.
Ten powers of Budha Dix pouvoirs de Bouddha Như lai thập lực 如來十力 Daśa
See Ten powers
ten wisdoms Thập trí 十智 Daśa jñānāni The ten forms of
understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened
understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto,
applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four
Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智;
(8) 他心智 understanding
of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in
or for self, i.e. 自信智;
(10) 無生智 nirvāṇa
wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26.
II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect
understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded
understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite
understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6)
of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or
universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all
living beings; (9) 知一切法智
of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding
of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten
forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings,
karma, passions, and Buddhas."
of desire Ái kết 愛結
The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi samadhi
du lieu des Sens infinis Vô lượng nghĩa xứ tam muội 無量義處三昧 anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna-samādhi
The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi, into which the Buddha is represented as
entering before preaching the doctrine of infinity as given in the Lotus Sūtra.
The eighteen dhātu Dix-huit domaines Thập bát giới 十八界 aṣṭādaśa
dhātavaḥ The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects
or conditions, and their perceptions.
The fourfold stage of mindfulness quatre
méditations hinayana ou theravada Tứ niệm xứ
smṛty-upasthānāni The fourfold stage of mindfulness, thought, or meditation
that follows the 五停心觀
procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of
thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of
contemplating (1) 身 the
body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) 受 sensation, or consciousness,
as always resulting in suffering; (3) 心 mind as impermanent, merely one
sensation after another; (4) 法 things in general as being dependent and without a nature
of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality, and
樂, 我, and 淨, i. e. the four 顚倒,
but v. 四德.
They are further subdivided into 別 and 總 particular and general, termed 別相念處 and 總相念處, and there are further
The fruit of karma Nghiệp quả 業果 The fruit of karma, conditions
of rebirth depending on previous karmic conduct.
The ten essential qualities
Dix modalités d'expression de la vie Thập như thị 十如是 The ten essential qualities,
or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form;
or embodiment; 力如是
cause; 果如是 environmental
cause; 果如是 effect;
reward; 本末究竟等 the
inseparability, or inevitability of them all.
The ten essential qualities Dix
mondes-états Thập giới 十界 The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the
hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas,
pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a
series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative
Buddhas, 實佛 absolute
The third region in the realm of formlessness. Troisième des
quatre royaumes du monde du sans-forme Vô sở hữu xứ 無所有處 ākiñcanyāyatana The third
region in the realm of formlessness.
the three evil paths, three bad migrations trois mauvaises voies Tam ác đạo 三惡
san-akushu The hells, hungry ghosts, animals.
The threefold body trois
corps Tam thân 三身
kāyāḥ The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya,
and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or
in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for
his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which
he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed.
While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from
the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs,
eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity,
etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the
All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity.
To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential
Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that
of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of
those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g.
Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere,
enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or
Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha,
and 化 Śākyamuni.
The 三賓 are
also 法 dharma,
Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being
essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest
conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by
Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body.
In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the
immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the
tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is
noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the
body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection
(saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings
about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith).
The "body of the law is the true reality of everything".
Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya
aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is
styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment
of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory
in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is
defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for
the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas,
enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained,
by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not
only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of
the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas
and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha
in his 化身 is
still one with his 法身
all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's
transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form
outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.
the white lotus society Société
du Lotus Blanc Bạch liên xã 白蓮社
Third meditation Troisième
niveau d'expérience méditative Tam thiền 三禪 Tri-dhyāna
heaven Tam thiền thiên 三禪天 Tri-dhyāna
Third noble person Troisième
noble personne A na hàm 阿那含 Anāgāmin Person who does not come
back. It is the third of the four noble persons (āryapudgala) who left the nine
categories of stains of pleasures and who does not return any more in the world
of desire (kāmadhatu).
three awarenesses trois connaissances mystiques
Tam minh 三明 tisro-vidyāḥ
three categories of self-restraint trois plans Tam giới 三界 trayo
dhātavaḥ Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist
metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple
world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist
three are 欲,
色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous
desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of
sensuous desire, of 婬 and
and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the
hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu
is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the
lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and
semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天,
or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界
or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no
bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but
where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but
it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty"
regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the
four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm
of form, their bounds cannot be defined. three conditions trois
catégories d'actions ou trois sortes de karma Tam nghiệp 三業 Trīṇi
karmāṇi The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are
several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy
karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable
nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma.
(4) (a) 漏業 Karma
of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma
of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and
their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life
consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are
other groups of three.
Three delusions Trois illusions Tam hoặc 三惑 A
Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱;
trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the
following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They
arise from (a) 見,
思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e.
illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be
rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of
ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its
bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion
and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions
and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in
three destinies trois voies Tam đồ 三塗 The
is interpreted by 途 a
road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to
the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the
asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords.
three gates of liberation trois méditations pour la délivrance Tam giải thoát môn 三解脫門 trīṇi vimokṣa-mukhāni
hindrances Trois obstacles Tam chướng 三障 Trīṇy āvaranāni The three
vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the
passions, i.e. 三毒
hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions.
kinds of blessings Tam phước 三福
Three kinds of suffering Trois souffrances Tam khổ 三苦 Tisro-duḥkhatāḥ The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or
of all things.
Three kinds of wisdom trois sortes de sagesse Tam trí 三智 Three
kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge
that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all
things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge
of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future.
Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly
or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka
and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and
Three poisons Trois poisons Tam độc 三毒 they are 貪 concupiscence,
or wrong desire, 瞋 anger,
hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to
accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and
delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia.
v. 智度論 19,
three practices trois disciplines Tam học 三學 tisraḥ śikṣāḥ
three times trois
phases de l'existence Tam thế 三世 trayo dhvānaḥ See Ten powers
three treasures trois
trésors Tam bảo 三寶
Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel
suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and
Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the
Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha,
Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as
Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world
of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated
details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and
e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also
been applied to the 三仙
Popularly the 三寳 are
referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is
Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations,
e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and
Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and
Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi
Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya
PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd
Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.
uncontaminated studies Trois disciplines Tam vô lậu học 三無漏學 Tisraḥ
śikṣāh The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape
from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the
three vehicles trois véhicules Tam thừa 三乘 trīṇi
yānāni the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra
or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled
小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles
are defined as 聲聞
that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the
enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both
is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna,
because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also
depicted as 三車 three
wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are
really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms
suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying,
complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by
different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna,
leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called
Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood
ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading
after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive
enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as
possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic
dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect
enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are:
(3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant
asceticism for the 中;
and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The
One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen
and 法華 Fa-hua
are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing
practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若;
(c) 小乘 the
Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also
described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development;
they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣;
the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial
saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘.
Three Vehicles as 方便
expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final
Thus have I heard Ainsi ai-je entendu Như thị ngã văn 如是我聞 Evaṁ
true thusness ainsité Chân như 真如 bhūta-tathatā、tathatā The眞 is
intp. as 眞實 the
real, 如 as
always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality,
or appearance, and 不變不改
or immutable as contrasted with form and phenomena. It resembles the ocean in
contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality
behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is
suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. The word is fundamental to
Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character
of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind; 佛性 Buddha-nature;
or Buddha-treasury; 實相
complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2, 3,
7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several
antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the 空 void,
static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, phenomenal; pure,
and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas,
defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible
in words. (3) 無相 Formless;
nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as
relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the
the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the other of the 圓教,
cf. 菩提心義 4;
the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.
twelve divisions of the Buddhist
canon douze procédés Thập nhị bộ kinh 十二部經 dvādaśāṅga-buddha-vacana
sense fields douze entrées Thập nhị xứ 十二處 dvādaśa āyatanani
hindrances Nhị chướng 二障 The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion
which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障,
worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom.
(2) (a) 煩惱障 as
above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances
to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions,
two kinds of attachment to self Nhị ngã chấp 二我執 The
two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive
cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the
result of (erroneous) reasoning.
kinds of meditation Nhị quán 二觀
two vehicles deux
véhicules Nhị thừa 二乘
Two views of self Nhị ngã kiến 二我見 The two erroneous views of
individualism: (a) 人我見
erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the
like view that anything exists with an independent nature.
thought Pensée irréaliste Điên đảo tưởng 顛倒想 Delirious cogitation and
delusive, mad, unrealistic thoughts which make us unhappy, annoying.
Vénérable Đại đức 大德 Bhadanta Big virtuousness. This name
was used before to indicate the monks having big virtuousness. Now, it is used
to indicate all monks in general (bhikkhus)
waters with eight attributes Bát
công đức thuỷ 八功德水
is phenomenal is impermanent. impermanence des multiples
mouvements Chư hành vô thường 諸行無常 Anityāḥ sarva-saṃskārāḥ Whatever is
phenomenal is impermanent.
White clothing adepte en blanc, Bạch y 白衣 avadāta-vasana
White clothing, said to be that of Brahmans and other people, hence it and 白俗 are
terms for the common people. It is a name also for Guanyin.
willow twigs Dương
chi 楊枝 Dantakāṣṭha
Wisdom Sagesse Bát nhã 般若 prajñā
Wisdom Sagesse, Sapience Tuệ 慧 Prajñā,
jñāna Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their
underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with
智, though not correctly, for
zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more
generally to principles or morals.
Without effort Sans effort Vô công dụng
world-honored one Vénéré du Monde Thế tôn 世尊 Lokanātha, Bhagavat world's most Venerable, or lokanātha,
lord of worlds. 盧迦委斯諦; 路迦那他 World-honoured, an epithet of every Buddha.
wrong view Ác kiến 惡見 dṛś、mithyā-dṛṣṭi